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Appendix B: Annotated References

Although we used many of the following references in developing these materials, we have also expanded this list to include references we think may be useful in the classroom as well. We’ve organized this list by media and then by topic, and added a few notes on each reference to help you select what is appropriate to your program. Many of these references are available from the public library.





1. Historical Perspectives on the Rio Grande


Shining River, Precious Land

Mary Davis and Kathryn Sargeant. 1986. The Albuquerque Museum. An oral his- tory of Albuquerque’s north valley.


Great River: The Rio Grande

Paul Horgan. 1984. Wesleyan University Press. Paul Horgan’s great classic about the river that bisects New Mexico on its way from the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. The fifth-longest river in the United States, it forms the border between Texas and Mexico for nearly a thousand miles. Horgan includes its history, geology, culture and economic importance. Winner of both the Pulitzer Prize and the Bancroft Prize for history, Great River was hailed as a literary masterpiece when it first appeared in 1954. The book was revised in 1984.


Cadillac Desert: the American West and its Disappearing Water

Marc P. Reisner. 1986. Viking Press, New York, and 1987 Penguin Books, New York. This far-reaching and insightful book tells the story of water in the Southwest: its history, the abuses that have resulted from its exploitation, and the outlook for the future.


Seeing Things Whole: The Essential John Wesley Powell

William deBuys, ed. 2001. Island Press/Shearwater Books, Washington, D.C., published in cooperation with the William P. Clements Center for Southwestern Studies. A collection of John Wesley Powell’s most important writings on the West, introduced, edited, and critiqued by one of today’s more insightful writers on the West.


The Place Names of New Mexico

Robert Julyan. 1996 and 2001. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. The authority on the names of rivers, canyons, towns and other natural and human-made features of the state, with much valuable historical and cultural information.


Rio Grande: From the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico

Peter Lourie. 1999. Boyd Mills Press, Honesdale, PA. This 48-page photo essay provides a nice overview of the Rio Grande from the Rockies to the Gulf of Mexico. The book follows the author on an adventurous exploration of the region.


New Mexico; Rio Grande; and Other Essays

Tony Hillerman. 1992. Graphic Arts Center Publishing Co. The Rio Grande essay is a wonderful description of the river and the people and history that surround it. The photographs by David Muench and Robert Reynolds are spectacular as well.


Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of Pueblo Indian History

Joe S. Sando. 1992, 1998. Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe, NM. This well-written collection of Pueblo history comes from the viewpoint of a Pueblo historian. The book includes a chapter on “Land, Water, and Survival” that adds insight to any study of the history of the Rio Grande.


Mayordomo: Chronicle of an Acequia in Northern New Mexico

Stanley Crawford. 1988. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. This well-written account of life along an acequia provides wonderful insight to the culture of water use along the Rio Grande.


2. Ecology and Biology of Middle Rio Grande


The Upper Rio Grande: A Guide to Decision Making

Shupe, Steven, and Folk-Williams, John. 1988. Western Network, Santa Fe. The theory behind this book is that if we know the facts about water use we can make better decisions about its allocation, but legal hurdles often stand in the way of logic. This is a useful primer on water allocation along the Upper Rio Grande.


Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem: Bosque Biological Management Plan

Clifford S. Crawford, Anne C. Cully, Rob Leutheuser, Mark S. Sifuentes, Larry H. White, and James Wilber. 1993. A technical report brimming with information and direction for cooperative management of the Middle Rio Grande bosque. For information on acquiring this publication write: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103.


From the Rio to the Sierra: An Environmental History of the Middle Rio Grande Basin

Dan Scurlock. 1998. General Technical Report RMRS-GTF-5. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. This government document has a wealth of information about the history and impact of people in this region. There are extensive chronologies on many topics, well researched dicusssions of the impacts of various activities throughout the watershed and many citations and references for future study. If it is still in print, it is available free from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station.


New Mexico Vegetation: Past, Present, and Future

William Dick-Peddie. 1993. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. This book describes the vegetation communities throughout New Mexico and the changes that have occurred within them. Includes a section on the vegetation along the Rio Grande.


Handbook of Wetland Vegetation Communities of New Mexico. Volume 1: Classification and Community Descriptions

Esteban Muldavin, Paula Durkin, Mike Bradley, Mary Stuever, and Patricia Mehlhop. 2000. New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, UNM Biology Department, Albuquerque, NM. This handbook contains detailed descriptions of the plant communities of New Mexico riparian areas including those found in the bosque. The companion volume (Volume 2: Wetland Reference Sites for New Mexico, Bradley et al., 1998) has maps and specific data for sites identified during the development of the classification as being “benchmark” or “reference sites” representing good conditions.


3. Field Guides and Natural History

Included are just a few of the many field guides available. New Mexico or Southwestern specific field guides are listed first, followed by some of the more general field guides. For more references on arthropods, refer to Appendix E.


Flowering Plants of New Mexico

R. D. Ivey. 1995 and 2001. The most complete collection of line drawings of New

Mexico plants that exists. Mr. Ivey is a retired high school science teacher, and his 30-plus years of plant illustrations are a very valuable resource. Although the book is available in many places, it is self-published. If you have trouble locating it, write to the author at: 9311 Headingly Court NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111.


Wild Plants of the Pueblo Province

William W. Dunmire and Gail D. Tierney. 1995. Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe. A beautiful book on plants, many of which are found in the Middle Rio Grande bosque, and the uses of the plants by Pueblo people.


Scats and Tracks of the Desert Southwest

James C. Halfpenny, 2000. Falcon Publishing, Helena, MT. A field guide to 70 species by this well-known biologist and tracker.


Shrubs and Trees of the Southwest Uplands

Frances R. Elmore, illustrated by Jeanne R. Jannish. 1976. Southwest Parks & Monuments Association, Tucson, AZ. The classic guide to woody plants in the Southwest. In addition to the native, high-elevation trees, this book also includes several introduced shrubs such as tamarisk which are found in the bosque.


The Natural History of New Mexico Mammals

J. S. Findley. 1987. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. An excellent reference to the lifestyles and locations of mammals found in New Mexico.


Guide to Western Wildlife: A Pilgrim’s Notebook

Buddy Mays. 1977. Chronicle Books, San Francisco. A delightful book of mammals (including Bigfoot!), raptors, waterfowl, and assorted reptiles. Text is appropriate for young naturalists, and the black and white photographs are excellent. Includes drawings of tracks and skulls.


The Great Southwest Nature Factbook

Susan J. Tweit. 1992. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage/Seattle. A wonderful collection of descriptions of animals, plants and places of the Southwest. Full of fun facts, and covers many bosque elements, as well as things found in other southwestern ecosystems.


Animal Tracks of the Southwest

Chris Stall. 1990. The Mountaineers, Seattle. A handy little pocket guide to prints left by New Mexico animals.


A Field Guide to Desert Holes

Pinau Merlin. 1999. Arizona–Sonora Desert Museum Press, Tucson. How big is that hole? Who do you think lives there? This is a great little guide to the many animals that dig holes, live in others’ holes or even make distinctive depressions, mounds and holes in trees. Kids are always guessing about who might be out of sight in that hole, and here’s a way to learn about those mysterious hole dwellers.


One Hundred Common Insects of New Mexico

David B. Richman and Carol A. Sutherland. 1987. New Mexico Cooperative Exten- sion Service. This 30-page guide includes line drawings and information on insects as well as other arthropods found in New Mexico. Available through county extension offices.


Bagging Big Bugs

Whitney Cranshaw and Boris Kondratieff. 1995. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO. A useful guide to collecting, identifying and displaying the largest and most colorful insects of the Rocky Mountain region. This book outlines excellent methods for collecting and handling insect specimens. It contains an overlap in species of insects discussed and those found in the Rio Grande bosque.


Birds of North America

1987. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. A popular field guide to birds with excellent illustrations.


Peterson field guides are good references for those wanting to develop more expertise in identification. Over 40 of these guides are published by Houghton Mifflin Co. Some of these guides we find useful in the bosque are:

Animal Tracks. Olaus J. Murie. 1974.

Beetles. Richard E. White. 1983.

Mammals. William H. Burt and Richard P. Grossenheider. 1952, 1976. Insects of America North of Mexico. Donald Borror and Richard White. 1970. Western Birds. Roger Tory Peterson. 1990.

Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Robert C. Stebbins. 1991.


Golden Guides, published by Golden Press, are small, pocket-size guides with lots of general information. Our favorites for bosque study include:

Butterflies and Moths. Robert T. Mitchell and Herbert S. Zim. 1987.

Pond Life. George K. Reid. 1987.

Spiders and Their Kin. Herbert W. Levi and Loma R. Levi. 1987.

Weather. Paul E. Lehr, R. Will Burnett, and Herbert S. Zim. 1987.


Stokes field guides have a comprehensive approach to natural history and are published by Little, Brown & Co., Boston. Many of these guides work well with bosque study, but we especially recommend A Guide to Observing Insect Lives. Donald Stokes. 1983.


Pueblo Birds and Myths

Hamilton A Tyler. 1979, 1991. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, and Northland Press, Flagstaff, AZ. This book offers several layers of information on the Pueblo view of birds including how birds are identified, the role of birds in ceremonies and other aspects of community life, and stories of birds to explain their markings or behavior.


Cranes the Noblest Flyers—In Natural History & Cultural Lore

Alice Lindsay Price. 2001. La Alameda Press, Albuquerque, NM. This book brings into focus the wealth of human lore, both scientific and cultural, to portray the survival into the 21st century of two North American crane species, the Sandhill Crane and the Whooping Crane.


Weeds of the West

Tom D. Whitson, ed. 1991. Western Society of Weed Science. This extensive field guide of early succession plants has marvelous color photographs and includes many of the plants found in the bosque.


Winter Botany: An Identification Guide to Native Trees and Shrubs

William Trelease. 1918, 1925, 1931. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. This is a nice reference for the “Winter Bud Activity” when further clarification or study is desired. Although the book focuses on eastern United States species, the glossary is helpful for winter botanists in the bosque.



William A. Niering. 1985, 1997. Chanticleer Press, Alfred A. Knopf, New York. A National Audubon Society Nature Guide. This guide covers plants, fish, reptiles, birds, insects, and mammals of North American rivers, lakes, and swamps. The color pictures are useful for identifying many of our wetland species.


Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary, second edition

James G. Harris and Melinda Woolf Harris. 1994 and 2001. Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, UT. This is an essential reference for students trying to sort through the extensive and complex terminology employed in plant taxonomy. Each term is illustrated and explained in simple terminology.


The Names of Plants

D. Gledhill. 1985, 1989. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. This glossary interprets the meaning of scientific plant names. There is also a thorough discussion on nomenclature rules for naming plants. This is a nice supplement to the activity “A Rose By Any Other Name” in Chapter 3.


How to Identify Grasses and Grass-like Plants

H. D. Harrington. 1977. Swallow Press, Athens, OH. This illustrated glossary is an essential tool for the beginning botany student to learn the unique terminology that accompanies grass identification.


How to Identify Plants

H. D. Harrington. 1957, 1985. Swallow Press, Athens, OH. A wonderful reference for the activity “A Rose By Any Other Name” in Chapter 3, this book has an illustrated glossary and great descriptions of plant features that can be used for identification and classification.


4. Environmental Education


Note: See Appendix C: Supplemental Activities for information on several additional environmental education activity guides.


Biodiversity: A Reference Book

Anne Bocher. ABC-CLIO, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA. An excellent primer on biodiversity that includes an overview, chronology of the development of the concept, biographical sketches of scientists working on biodiversity, statistics, illustrations, significant documents, a directory of organizations, print and other resources.


Ecology: Concepts and Applications

Manuel C. Molles, Jr. 1999. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Don’t let the fact that this book is a college textbook dissuade you. The well-written explanations of ecological concepts will enhance any reader’s understanding of our natural world. The book is full of stories from the field, Internet resources, color pictures and illustrations, and many references.


Ecology: An Introduction for Non-Science Majors

Harold R. Hungerford. 1994, 1997. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, IL. This book includes readings and activities for high school and college students to reinforce ecological concepts.


Ecosystem Explorations

Joan Doyle, Kristin L. Gunckel, John Haskell, Yvette Martinez, Christopher M. Peknik. 1998. Sandia Mountain Natural History Center, New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Albuquerque, NM. This guide for teachers has many activities for introducing basic ecological concepts to students.


Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo River Valley

Trudy L. Volk, William J. Bluhm, Harold R. Hungerford, and John M. Ramsey.

2001. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, IL. Available in both teacher and student editions, this guide provides readings and activities for exploring issues along the Rio Grande.


Nature’s Numbers

Ian Stewart. 1995. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London. Aimed at the educated but non-specialist reader, this book explores the fascinating mathematical patterns found in nature.


Reading the Forested Landscape: A Natural History of New England

Tom Wessels. 1997. The Countryman Press, Woodstock, VT. This book has etchings of landscapes, each followed by a chapter of interpretations of the ecological history of the landscape depicted based on observed features. Even though this book focuses on interpreting New England landscapes, the thought patterns and concepts can be applied to the bosque. (See the activity “Reading the Bosque” in Chapter 3.)


Enhancing the Curriculum Through Service Learning

Carol W. Kinsley and Kate McPherson, eds. 1995. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA. In this practical guide to service learning, 21 contributors describe specific service-learning projects that have enhanced the curriculum in schools across the United States—and that have improved student learning in the process.


Assessing Toxic Risk

Nancy M. Trautmann. 2001. NSTA Press, Arlington, VA.


Invasion Ecology

Marianne E. Krasny and the Environmental Inquiry Team. 2002. Cornell Scientific

Inquiry Series. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

These are two great resources in the Cornell Scientific Inquiry Series published by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). They are available in both a teacher’s edition and a student’s edition. They are designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.


Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learn- ing

Steve Olson and Susan Loucks-Horsley, eds. 2000. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. This is a practical guide to teaching inquiry and teaching through inquiry. Detailed examples help clarify when teachers should use the inquiry-based approach and how much structure, guidance and coaching they should provide.


Inquire Within: Implementing Inquiry-based Science Standards

Douglas Llewellyn. 2002. Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA. A comprehensive guide to inquiry-based learning. Provides concrete examples of inquiry-based teaching and learning along with tips and tools for science teachers.


Girls Who Looked Under Rocks: The Lives of Six Pioneering Naturalists

Jeannine Atkins. 2000. Dawn Publications, Nevada City, CA. The lives of six renowned female scientists and naturalists are described from early childhood to maturity. Their childhoods were filled with adventures in nature regardless of whether they were encouraged by their families or not. Extraordinary commitment, intelligence and perseverance helped these women succeed in non-traditional careers.


A Sand County Almanac

Aldo Leopold. 1949. Oxford University Press, New York. Leopold’s classic intro- duction to ecology, this book is the bible of modern environmentalists, a series of essays and observations about the natural world that has laid the groundwork for current thinking about conservation, the land ethic and stewardship.


Round River: Journals of Aldo Leopold

Luna B. Leopold, ed. 1953. Oxford University Press, New York. Like his Sand County

Almanac, this collection of Leopold’s essays, largely about the American Southwest, sets forth the author’s concept of stewardship of the land and its water. It includes the essays “The Delta Colorado” and “The Gila.”


Aldo Leopold’s Southwest

David E. Brown and Neil B. Carmony, eds. 1990. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. This is a collection of 26 of Aldo Leopold’s early writings from the time when he was working in the Southwest. Several of the essays discuss wildlife along the Rio Grande.


Thinking Like a Mountain: Aldo Leopold and the Evolution of an Ecological Attitude toward Deer, Wolves and Forests

Susan L. Flader. 1974. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London. This is a good book for the serious of student of Aldo Leopold. Although not directly related to the bosque, this book tracks the kinds of changes Leopold made in his thinking throughout his career.


Reading the Landscape of America

May Thielgaard Watts. 1999. Nature Study Guild Reprint Edition, Rochester, NY. Watts’s original and witty prose teaches us to interpret the clues that reveal the interrelationship of history, both natural and human, of a place. Her book, full of diagrams and drawings, helps us to learn to reach the stories written about the land.


The Pill Bug Project

Robin Burnett, illustrated by Sergey Ivanov. 1992. Published by the National Sci- ence Teacher’s Association, this is a wonderful idea book of ways to use pillbugs (roly-polys, sow bugs, etc.) in effective educational experiments. If you have trouble finding this, write the National Science Teacher’s Association, 1742 Connecticut Ave, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009.


Keepers of the Earth. 1989. Keepers of the Animals. 1991. Keepers of the Night. 1994. Keepers of Life. 1994.

Joseph Bruchac and Michael Caduto. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO. These four books are ollections of Native American stories, with developed activities to help children appreciate the stories and the natural world.


Sharing Nature with Children. 1979. Sharing the Joy of Nature. 1989. Listening to Nature. 1987.

Journey to the Heart of Nature. 1994.

Joseph Cornell. Dawn Publications, Nevada City, CA. A popular set of books that develop the “Flow Learning” system of nature awareness. Many ideas for activities to do with kids in the outdoors.


Wading Into Wetlands

Trees are Terrific

Incredible Insects

Incredible Insects Discovery Pack

Hear It for Herps Birds, Birds, Birds Amazing Mammals

Nature Scope Activity Guides. National Wildlife Federation. These are just a few of the Nature Scope environmental education guides. Each thematic guide is full of hands-on activities for students. Nature Scope is available through the National Wildlife Federation, 1400 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.


5. Inspiration


River Reflections

Edited by Verne Huser. 1985. The Globe Pequot Press. Chester, CT. A collection of writings about rivers and the thoughts that rivers inspire.


The Earth Speaks: An Acclimitization Journal

Steve Van Matre and Bill Weiler. 1983. The Institute for Earth Education, Cedar Cove, Greenville, WV 24945-0115. A collection of inspiring words of nature writers.


The Geography of Childhood: Why Children Need Wild Places

Gary Paul Nabhan and Stephen Trimble. 1994. Beacon Press, Boston. This is a collection of essays by two naturalists, fathers and environmental educators reflecting on the importance of children spending time in the outdoors. The book offers compelling evidence that exploration of wild places promotes self-esteem, confidence, and caring in children.


Call of the River: Writings and Photographs

Page Stegner, ed. 1996. Harcourt, Brace, & Co., Orlando, FL. Eight writers capture the spirit of the river in written words through essays, adventure stories, reflections and even confessions on the power rivers have over us. In addition, 61 stunning photographs illustrate the collections.



6. Journaling

A Trail Through Leaves: The Journal as a Path to Place

Hannah Hinchman. 1997. W. W. Norton & Company, New York. This beautiful book is full of activities, examples and ideas that will inspire any nature journalist, from the novice to the experienced.


Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain

Betty Edwards. 1989. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., Los Angeles, CA. This book has helped many people who believed they could not draw, learn to draw. Applying discoveries in brain research to the teaching of drawing skills, this book presents a set of exercises designed to release creative potential and tap into the special abilities of the visual, perceptual right hemisphere of the brain.


At a Journal Workshop: Writing to Access the Power of the Unconscious and Evoke Cre- ative Ability

Ira Progoff, PhD. 1975, 1992. This workbook is for the serious student of the journaling process. It focuses more on written journals and will appeal more to teachers and older, mature students.


7. Children’s Books


The A, B, C of the Biosphere

Professor Finch, illustrated by Mary Beath. 1993. Biosphere Press, Oracle, AZ. From “A is for Atmosphere to Z is for Zoology,” Professor Finch’s playful verse and Mary Beath’s lavish illustrations are sure to delight every earthling. This alphabet book has excitement for all ages and covers many environmental topics.


Tell Me, Tree: All About Trees for Kids

Gail Gibbons. 2002. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. This children’s book describes dif- ferent kinds of trees, including cottonwoods. It presents the many parts of a tree, inside and out, with cutaway illustrations and labels. The book includes an explanation of photosynthesis and a special section on how to make a tree identification book on your own.



Sylvia A. Johnson. 1985. Lerner Publications, Minneapolis, MN. An excellent book for bat lovers and those who want to know more about bats.


Between Cattails

Terry Tempest Williams, pictures by Peter Parnell. 1985. Scribner A delightful adventure in the marsh discovering red-wing blackbirds, great blue herons, western grebes, muskrats, pikes, and a host of other creatures we find in our bosque marshes.


Joyful Noise. Poems for Two Voices

Paul Fleischman, illustrated by Eric Beddows. 1988. Harper & Row. Winner of the

1989 Newberry Award, this delightful book of poetry is perfect for oral reading with two parts. The poems feature many of our favorite bosque critters including cicadas, mayflies, and water striders.


Rio Grande Stories

Carolyn Meyer. 1994. Harcourt, Inc. Orlando, FL. A young-adult novel about a seventh-grade class documenting the diverse cultures, stories and traditions of people living along the Rio Grande in Albuquerque.




“The Rio Grande: New Mexico’s Treasure”

Produced by the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District. 1992. An excellent review of many human alterations to the river, and why these alterations were made. Available from school district libraries throughout the Middle Rio Grande. Also available to borrow from the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy, P.O. Box 581, Albuquerque, NM 87102, telephone (505) 247-0234.


“Riparian Areas Investigation”

Produced by the Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ. A series of videos varying from 19 minutes to 35 minutes which discuss riparian areas in the Southwest.


“Jardines del Bosque Music Video”

Produced by the National Hispanic Cultural Center, Albuquerque, NM. 2002. A six-minute music video produced by the students who participated in the 2002 institute internship in the Jardines del Bosque project. Available from the NHCC education office.


“Un Rio, Muchas Voces” or “One River, Many Voices”

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2000. Albuquerque, NM (40 min). A fast-moving tour of the Rio Grande from the headwaters to the Gulf. An expanded version of the nine-minute film with the same name shown at the Albuquerque Aquarium. Discusses human interactions with the river from many diverse cultural standpoints.


“Sandhill Cranes—Wintering in New Mexico”

Judith Shaw Productions. 2002. Albuquerque, NM. (16:30 min).  A video tour of Bosque del Apache in central New Mexico focusing on sandhill cranes and their comeback from near extinction.


Back to the Bosque

Educational Products from Educators, Leading Object TM, Box 30003, MSC 3AI, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8003; 505-646-5368 or 1-888-750-4156; 


“Birds of the Bosque” 

Agricultural Information Video Studio, New Mexico Cooperative Extension Ser- vice, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, New Mexico State University, Department 3AL, P.O. Box 3003, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-0003.

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